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2021年12月英语四级完形填空试题与答案

2021-09-12 19:47:18外语类访问手机版500

  2021年12月英语四级完形填空试题答案

  Text 1

  As is known to all, the organization and management of wages and salaries are very complex. Generally speaking, the Accounts Department is __1__ for calculations of pay, while the Personnel Department is interested in discussions with the employees about pay.

  If a firm wants to __2__ a new wage and salary structure, it is essential that the firm should decide on a __3__ of job evaluation and ways of measuring the performance of its employees. In order to be __4__, that new pay structure will need agreement between Trade Unions and employers. In job evaluation, all of the requirements of each job are defined in a detailed job description. Each of thsoe requirements is given a value, usually in "points", which are __5__ together to give a total value for the job. For middle and higher management, a special method is used to evaluate managers on their knowledge of the job, their responsibility, and their __6__ to solve problems. Because of the difficulty in measuring management work, however, job grades for managers are often decided without __7__ to an evaluation system based on points.

  In attempting to design a pay system, the Personnel Department should __8__ the value of each job with these in the job market. __9__, payment for a job should vary with any differences in the way that the job is performed. Where it is simple to measure the work done, as in the works done with hands, monetary encouragement schemes are often chosen, for __10__ workers, where measurement is difficult, methods of additional payments are employed.

  [A]compare

  [B]responsible

  [C]useful

  [D]added

  [E]find

  [F]reference

  [G]indirect

  [H]method

  [I]successful

  [J]combined

  [K]Necessarily

  [L]capacity

  [M]ability

  [N]Basically

  [O]adopt

  Answers:

  1.选B。此处应填形容词。原文意思为“会计部门...计算报酬”,选项中的形容词responsible“负责任的”,useful“有用的”,indirect“间接的”,successful“成功的”,其中indirect不能与for连用,排除;剩余几项中只有Bresponsible意义符合原句,其他均不符合,故排除。

  2.选O。此处应填动词原形。本文主题就是采用一种新的工资和薪水制度时需要注意的问题,选项中的动词原形有compare“比较”,find“找到”,adopt“采纳”,分别带入原文,只有adopt最符合原文意思,故选O.

  3.选H。此处应填名词。从原文看,and连接并列结构,所以要填的词应与and后面的ways意思一致,选项中的名词只有mathod = ways,故选Hmethod。

  4.选I。此处应填形容词。上文说新的工资制度需要一套决定工作评估和衡量雇员表现的方法,说的是制度“是否有用”的问题。这句说的时新的工资制度执行过程中的问题,劳资双方先期达成一致是薪酬制度成功的必要条件。形容词useful和successful,Iseccessful更符合原文意思。

  5.选D。此处应填动词。这个动词的宾语是point“分值”,把分值...起来to give a total value"得出总分值",选项中有added和combined,前者指“把...相加”,后者意为“把...结合在一起”,原文指将分值相加得出总分,故Dadded最符合文意。

  6.选M。此处应填名词。首先solve problem“解决问题”是经理们应具备的能力,选项中的capacity与ability都可以表示“能力”;前者强调的是理解的能力和接受事物的能力,而后者强调实际应用的能力,故不难判断解决问题的能力应该用Mability。

  7.选F。此处应填名词。前半句指出“因为管理工作很难评估,经理的工作得分不需要参照基于分值的评估系统决定。”without reference to为固定搭配,意思是“与...无关”。故选Freference。

  8.选A。此处应填动词原形。原句中出现了the value of each job“每种工作的价值”和these in the job market“工作市场上的工作价值”,说明人事部门通过比较两种价值来计算工资制度。选项中只有compare表示“比较”,所以A正确。

  9.选K。此处应填副词,修饰整句话。“报酬要随工作表现各方面的不同而有所改变”,选项中Necessarily“必须地”与Basically“基本地”为副词,分别带入原文,“报酬...的变化是必须的”更符合上cet4v.com除N,选K。

  10.选G。此处应填形容词。前文中提到一种情况即simple to measure the work done"易于评估的工作",通常用现金奖励办法;而...measurement is difficult“难于评估的”,说明这些工作人员的工作不像手工工作那么直接,因而是间接的,故选项中只有Gindirect符合原句的意思。

  Text 2

  As the pace of life continues to increase, we are fast losing the art of relaxation. But relaxation is __1__ for a healthy mind and body.

  Stress is a natural part of everyday life and there is no way to __2__ it. In fact, it is not the bad thing as it is often supposed to be. A certain amount of stress is vital to provide motivation and give purpose to life. It is only when the stress gets out of __3__ that it can lead to poor performance and ill health.

  The amount of stress a person can withstand depends very much on the individual. Some peoplw are not afraid of stress, and such __4__ are obviously prime material for managerial responsibilities. Others lose heart at the first sight of __5__ difficulties. When exposed to stress, in whatever form, we react both physically and __6__. In fact we make choice between "flight or fight" and in more __7__ days the choices made the difference between life or death. The crises we meet today are unlikely to be so extreme, but however little the stress, it cet4v.com same __8__. It is when such a reaction lasts long, through continued __9__ to stress, that health becomes endangered. Since we cannot __10__ stress from our lives it would be unwise to do so even if we could, we need to find ways to deal with it.

  Aexposure Bcharacters Canswer Dchemically

  Eavoid Fpsychologically Gprimitive Htransfer

  Iunusual Jcontrol Kremove Lescape

  Mresponse Nbackward Oessential

  ANSWER:

  1.选O。此处应填形容词。前文中说人们正在失去放松的休闲方式,But转折表明作者对relaxation的重视态度,只有essential“必须的,重要的”符合文意。

  2.选E。此处应填动词。前句说Stress is a natural part of everyday life“压力是日常生活中很自然的一部分”,说明人们不能避免压力。选项中只有avoid的意思为“避免,消除”,故Eavoid正确。

  3.选J。此处应填名词。前面说有压力并不是坏事,适当的压力能给人以动力,能赋予人生活的意义。只有在什么时候,压力才会导致人们表现不佳,身体不好。根据上下文可知get out of control“压力失控”的时候,才会有不好的结果,故选Jcontrol。

  4.选B。此处应填名词。前句中not afraid of stress“不怕压力”是一些人的性格特点,选项中可以表示人的性格特点的词只有characters,故选B。

  5.选I。此处应填形容词,修饰名词difficulties。一些人遇到......的困难就灰心丧气,选项中的形容词中,unusual“不同寻常的”可以说明困难的程度,故选择I。

  6.选F。此处应填副词,与physically相对应,在此physically作为“身体上的”解释。选项中的副词有chemically“化学地”和psychologically“精神地”,很明显两个副词中选择Fpsychologically。

  7.选G。此处应填形容词,修饰名词days。...days与后文中的today相对应,形成对比。选项中的是primitive,即将人类的早期和人类的今天做比较 ,故选G。而Nbackward说明的是社会发展的状态,不符合原文意思。

  8.选M。此处填名词。前句说,在人类的早期,选择不同就意味着生与死的差别;而现在人们碰到的危机不可能那样极端。后面but转折,说明了不管是压力的大小,人们都是在“避免”和“战斗”之间选择,下句中的such a reaction也可以说明人们对压力的反应是一样的,选项中的名词answer和response中,Mresponse=reaction符合文意。

  9.选A。根据上题,这种反应长时间持续的原因就是长时间的面对压力,选项中的exposure“暴露的状态,受影响”符合上下文意思,故选择Aexposure。

  10.选K。此处要填动词原形,和from构成动介搭配。人们应想办法应对压力,而不是将它......出人们的生活。选项中的transfer表示“转移”不符合原文意思;remove“移动,移除”可以和from连用,表示“除掉,移开”,符合原文意思,故选K。

  导读:

  As the pace of life continues to increase, we are fast losing the art of relaxation. But relaxation is Oessential for a healthy mind and body.

  Stress is a natural part of everyday life and there is no way to Eavoid it. In fact, it is not the bad thing as it is often supposed to be. A certain amount of stress is vital to provide motivation and give purpose to life. It is only when the stress gets out of Jcontrol that it can lead to poor performance and ill health.

  The amount of stress a person can withstand depends very much on the individual. Some peoplw are not afraid of stress, and such Bcharacters are obviously prime material for managerial responsibilities. Others lose heart at the first sight of

  看到......时,一看到......。 Iunusual difficulties. When exposed to stress, in whatever form, we react both physically and Fpsychologically. In fact we make choice between "flight or fight"

  意为“逃避”与“战斗”,作者在这里用了头韵和尾韵的`修辞方法,使文章更加琅琅上口。and in more Gprimitive days the choices made the difference between life or death. The crises we meet today are unlikely to be so extreme, but however little the stress, it cet4v.com same Mresponse. It is when such a reaction lasts long, through continued Aexposure to stress, that health becomes endangered.

  本句中,it is...that为强调句型。强调的成分是一个是件状语从句"when such a reaction lasts long";介词短语,“health become endangered”中的become相当于is。 Since we cannot Kremove stress from our lives it would be unwise to do so even if we could, we need to find ways to deal with it.

  全文翻译:

  随着生活节奏持续加快,我们也正迅速地失去放松的休闲方式。但放松对于身心健康是非常必要的。

  压力是日常生活中很自然的一部分,而且无法避免。事实上,压力并不像人们常常想象的那样是件坏事。一定的压力能给人以压力,能赋予人生活的意义。只有压力失控时,才会导致人们表现不佳,身体不好。

  一个人能承受的压力很大程度上取决于个人。有些人不害怕压力,很明显,那样的性格是管理职责的重要条件。而其他人一碰到不同寻常的困难就灰心丧气。当面对任何形式的压力时,我们会有身体和精cet4v.com实上,我们就是在“逃避”与“战斗”之间做出选择。而在人类早期,这样的选择就是生与死的差别。我们现在碰到的危机不可能那样极端。但是不管压力多么小,它都会引起同样的反应。只有当持续地面对压力,而且这种反应持续是件过长时,个人的健康才会受到威胁。一些严重的疾病,像高血压、心脏病等就与压力有关。既然我们无法摆脱生活中的压力,即使能够那样做也是不明智的,我们就必须找到应对压力的方法。